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As of 2013, roughly 3,106 living and fossil termite species are recognised, classified in 12 households. The infraorder Isoptera is split into the following clade and household groups, showing that the subfamilies in their respective classification:26
Termites are found on all continents except Antarctica. The diversity of termite species is reduced in North America and Europe (10 species known in Europe and 50 in North America), but is high in South America, in which over 400 species are known.34 Of the 3,000 termite species currently classified, 1,000 are found in Africa, where mounds are extremely abundant in certain regions.
Within China, termite species have been restricted to mild tropical and subtropical lands south of the Yangtze River.34 In Australia, all ecological groups of termites (dampwood, drywood, subterranean) are endemic to the country, with over 360 categorized species.34.
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As a result of their soft cuticles, termites do not inhabit cool or cold habitats.36 There are three ecological forms of termites: dampwood, drywood and subterranean. Dampwood termites are found only in coniferous woods, and drywood termites are found in hardwood forests; subterranean termites live in widely diverse areas.34 One species in the drywood group is that the West Indian drywood termite (Cryptotermes brevis), which can be an invasive species in Australia.37.
Termites are usually small, measuring between 4 to 15 millimetres (0.16 to 0.59 in) in length.34 The largest of all extant termites are the queens of the species Macrotermes bellicosus, measuring around over 10 centimetres (4 in) in length.38 Another giant termite, the extinct Gyatermes styriensis, thrived in Austria during the Miocene and had a wingspan of 76 millimetres (3.0 in) and a body length of 25 millimetres (0.98 in).39note 1. )
Most worker and soldier termites are blind as they do not own a pair of eyes. But some species, such as Hodotermes mossambicus, haveCompound eyes that they use for orientation and to distinguish sunlight from moonlight.40 The alates (winged males and females) have eyes along with lateral ocelli.
Termite antennae have a number of functions such as the sensing of taste, touch, odours (including pheromones), heat and vibration. The three primary segments of a termite antenna include a scape, a pedicel (usually shorter than the scape), and the flagellum (all segments beyond the scape and pedicel). The mouth parts contain a maxillae, a labium, and a set of mandibles.
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Consistent with insects, the anatomy of the termite thorax consists of 3 segments: the prothorax, the mesothorax and the metathorax. Each segment contains a set of legs. On alates, the wings are at the mesothorax and metathorax. The mesothorax and metathorax have well-developed exoskeletal plates; the prothorax has smaller plates. .
Termites have a ten-segmented abdomen with two plates, the tergites and also the sternites. The tenth abdominal segment has a set of short cerci.45 You can find ten tergites, of which nine are broad and one is elongated. The reproductive organs are similar to those in cockroaches but are more simplified. For example, the intromittent organ is not present in penile alates, and the semen is immotile or aflagellate.
Unlike in other termites, Mastotermitidae females have an ovipositor, a feature strikingly like that in female cockroaches.48.
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The non-reproductive castes of termites are wingless and rely solely on their six legs for locomotion. The alates fly only for a short amount of time, and therefore that they also rely on their own legs. The appearance of the legs is comparable in each caste, but the soldiers have larger and heavier legs.
The number of tibial spurs on an individual's leg varies. Some species of termite have an arolium, located between the claws, which can be present in species which climb on smooth surfaces but is absent in most termites.49.
Unlike in ants, the hind-wings and fore-wings are of equivalent length.2 the majority of the time, the alates are poor stocks; their technique is to launch themselves in the atmosphere and fly in a random direction. Studies indicate that More about the author in comparison to bigger termites, smaller termites cannot fly long distances. When a termite is in flight, its wings remain in a ideal angle, and when the termite is at rest, its wings remain parallel to your own body.51.
Caste system of termites A King B Queen C Secondary queen D Tertiary queen Soccer Infection F Worker
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Worker termites undertake the maximum labour within the colony, being responsible for foraging, food storage, and brood and nest maintenance.53 Workers are tasked with the digestion of cellulose in meals and are consequently the most likely caste to be found in infested wood. The procedure for worker termites feeding different nestmates is popularly known as trophallaxis.